Thank you all for the kind words we have received over the last few years. I felt the need to reorganize and make it simpler for you all to gain access to everything needed, still by grade but linked to the different lessons (both free and subscription versions) to help make your journey a lot easier.
Before you grab what you need, I want to remind you that each state is different in terms of regulations as in what subjects, hours and days are needed. That being said all the information below can used in any state.
In New York State, 1st graders are expected to cover Reading, Spelling, Writing, Language Arts, US History and Geography, Arithmetic, Science, Visual Arts, Music, Health and Gym for a total of 900 hours in 180 days. You are also expected to cover Patriotism and Citizenship, fire safety, New York History, highway safety, constitution and alcohol, drug and tobacco misuse.
English language Arts
By the end of 4th grade your child should be fully understanding grammar, sentence structure and how to investigate in English, History and Science. Your child should also be reading at a S/T level. A 4th grader should be writing with no help and be revising their work with your help. We have added a printable here, as well as on out Printable and Freebies page and you will have full access in our Facebook group.
*This post contains Amazon Affiliated links in order to earn a commission to learn more read our Disclosure Policy*
The Balloon Boy of San Francisco by Dorothy Kupcha Leland
In 1853, San Francisco newsboy Ready Gates lives up to his nickname. He’s ready for anything–whether it’s shouting the latest headlines from a street corner, sneaking onto a river boat to avoid paying the fare, or tracking down a missing gold miner. But when he crosses the bay to watch a balloon ascension, his adventures suddenly take an unexpected turn. Based on a true story, this book paints a colorful picture of daily life in San Francisco five years after the discovery of gold in California. It’s drawn from newspapers, letters, diaries and many historical documents. – Amazon
The Story of Inventions by Anna Claybourne
Toasters, toilets and televisions, computers, cars and chocolate bars, flying machines and even your jeans. All these everyday things and many more are only here because someone bothered to invent them. This book reveals the real-life stories and bright sparks behind dozens of brilliant inventions. – Goodreads
The Story of Exploration by Anna Claybourne
Entertaining guides that invite young readers to discover fascinating facts about science and delve into incredible tales of intrepid explorers who helped shape modern history. – Amazon
Castle Diary by Richard Platt
What was it really like to live in a castle? Step back to the Middle Ages with CASTLE DIARY: THE JOURNAL OF TOBIAS BURGESS. Eleven-year-old Toby’s vivid diary entries offer an insider’s view of day-to-day castle life, including tips on etiquette (where do you spit at a feast?) and exciting descriptions of hunting, jousting, and harvesting. Complete with glossary, index, and detailed endnotes, this is a rich look at medieval life that informs as much as it entertains. – Amazon
Pirate Diary by Richard Platt
Curious about life on a pirate ship? Check out PIRATE DIARY: THE JOURNAL OF JAKE CARPENTER, an account of adventure on the high seas as told by a feisty nine-year-old carpenter’s apprentice, circa 1716. Historically accurate illustrations of ship and crew, a map of Jake’s travels, and a detailed glossary and index vividly reveal the fascinating – and harsh – life of a pirate in the eighteenth century. Ships ahoy! – Amazon
Amos Fortune, Free Man by Elizabeth Yates
The Newbery Award winner, based on a true story!
Captured by slave traders when only 15, At-mun never forgot his roots as a prince. Nor did he ever lose his princely dignity and the courage to hold his head high. Sold at auction in America and haunted by the memory of his young sister left behind in Africa, At-mun, now Amos, began his long march to freedom. He dreamed of being free and of buying the freedom of his closest friends.
By the time he was 60 years old, Amos Fortune began to see those dreams come true. “It does a man no good to be free until he learns how to live,” he often said, and he left a legacy of freedom for himself and others that has immortalized his touching story for us all. Recommended for Grades 3 and up. – Amazon
The Wheel on the School by Meindert De Jong
Why do the storks no longer come to the little Dutch fishing village of Shora to nest? It was Lina, one of the six schoolchildren who first asked the question, and she set the others to wondering. And sometimes when you begin to wonder, you begin to make things happen. So the children set out to bring the storks back to Shora. The force of their vision put the whole village to work until at last the dream began to come true. – Amazon
Esperanza Rising by Pam Munoz Ryan
Esperanza thought she’d always live a privileged life on her family’s ranch in Mexico. She’d always have fancy dresses, a beautiful home filled with servants, and Mama, Papa, and Abuelita to care for her. But a sudden tragedy forces Esperanza and Mama to flee to California and settle in a Mexican farm labor camp. Esperanza isn’t ready for the hard work, financial struggles brought on by the Great Depression, or lack of acceptance she now faces. When Mama gets sick and a strike for better working conditions threatens to uproot their new life, Esperanza must find a way to rise above her difficult circumstances-because Mama’s life, and her own, depend on it. – Amazon
Lewis and Clark and Me by Laurie Meyers
In 1803, Meriwether Lewis and William Clark set off on a journey to explore the vast territory of the United States west of the Mississippi River. Accompanying Lewis and Clark and their team of explorers through this uncharted wilderness was Lewis’ dog Seaman.
Lewis and Clark and Me is Seaman’s story. From his first meeting with Lewis, to being mistaken for a bear by Indians who had never seen such a large dog, to his encounters with wild animals both familiar and unfamiliar, Seaman’s tales are filled with the joys of companionship and the tingling excitement of adventure.
Seaman’s stories are based information provided in the explorers’ journals. The book include many of these direct quotes from the original text as well as a detailed map showing the highlights of this amazing expedition. – Amazon
Turn Homeward, Hannalee by Patricia Beatty
Cannons blazing, homes burning, soldiers fighting and dying—against this Civil War backdrop, two thousand Georgia textile workers are shipped north by the Union Army against their will to work in Yankee mills. Twelve-year-old Hannalee Reed is one of these mill hands, and this is the story of her fulfilling a promise to make her way home again to Georgia and the family she was forced to leave behind.
This powerful novel, based on historical events, is alive with the places and personalities, the sights, sounds, and issues of that era; and it reveals a scarcely known side of our most significant American conflict.
Turn Homeward, Hannalee graphically captures the horror of warfare; the lasting changes war makes in the lives of all those caught up in it; and the differing ways in which people fight to survive. Hannalee is a quick-witted, plucky heroine, who is sure to join the ranks of Patricia Beatty’s most memorable characters; and the sweep, drama, and emotional impact of her story is one readers will long remember. – Amazon
Tree of Freedom by Rebecca Caudill
When thirteen-year-old Stephanie Venable moves with her family from North Carolina to a four-hundred-acre homestead in Kentucky, she knows they’re in for a great adventure. The family sells whatever belongings they can’t fit in their covered wagon, and begin the long journey west. But Stephanie has brought something special with her, an apple seed from their tree back home, just as her grandmother did when she moved from France to America.
In Kentucky, the Venables must fell trees, build a cabin, and prepare the land for crops. Being a pioneer is a lot of work, but it’s also very exciting: Stephanie and her family must grow, catch, or hunt everything they need to eat and survive. With the Revolutionary War also moving west, the family faces threats from British sympathizers and American rebels. Will freedom take root in America, like Stephanie’s young apple tree, or will the Venable family succumb to the hardships of frontier life? – Amazon
The Mystery of the Roman Ransom by Henry Winterfield
In these two delightful history-mysteries, seven boys in Ancient Rome solve strange crimes . . . thanks to some help from their cranky teacher, a little bit of logic, and a lot of amusing misadventure.
It seems the boys can get nothing right: Their teacher’s fiftieth birthday is long past (they should have done their math homework); the servant they bought as a present for his birthday isn’t just your run-of-the-mill Gaul slave but a courier running for his life; and, to top it all off, the message he’s carrying requests the assassination of a Roman senator—the father of one of the boys.
Detectives in Togas by Henry Winterfield (this is a series)
In these two delightful history-mysteries, seven boys in Ancient Rome solve strange crimes . . . thanks to some help from their cranky teacher, a little bit of logic, and a lot of amusing misadventure.
Yes, Rufus wrote CAIUS IS A DUMBBELL on his tablet at school, but no, he did not break into the schoolroom, did not tie up his teacher, and certainly did not paint his slur about Caius on the Temple of Minerva (even if it is in Rufus’s own handwriting). Rufus is doomed unless his six classmates can find out who is really responsible. Every hour seems to bring a new, confusing clue . . . until the boys finally stumble upon someone who is not what he appears to be.
Island of the Blue Dolphins by Scott O’Dell
Far off the coast of California looms a harsh rock known as the island of San Nicholas. Dolphins flash in the blue waters around it, sea otter play in the vast kep beds, and sea elephants loll on the stony beaches.
Here, in the early 1800s, according to history, an Indian girl spent eighteen years alone, and this beautifully written novel is her story. It is a romantic adventure filled with drama and heartache, for not only was mere subsistence on so desolate a spot a near miracle, but Karana had to contend with the ferocious pack of wild dogs that had killed her younger brother, constantly guard against the Aleutian sea otter hunters, and maintain a precarious food supply.
More than this, it is an adventure of the spirit that will haunt the reader long after the book has been put down. Karana’s quiet courage, her Indian self-reliance and acceptance of fate, transform what to many would have been a devastating ordeal into an uplifting experience. From loneliness and terror come strength and serenity in this Newbery Medal-winning classic.
The Houdini Box by Brian Selznick
Victor is forever trying to escape from locked trunks, walk through walls, and perform any number of Houdini’s astonishing magic tricks…without success. Then — amazingly — he actually meets his idol, and begs Houdini to explain himself. A mysterious locked box is the magician’s only answer, and Victor is left to wonder: Does the box contain the secrets to the most famous magic tricks ever performed? – Amazon
Ginger Pye by Estes
This book is about a puppy named Ginger. Jerry Pye, a resident in Cranbury, Connecticut in 1919, bought a puppy he wanted from Ms. Speedy for a hard-earned dollar he made while dusting the pews in the church for Sam Doody. Jerry was pleased with the puppy and headed home. On the way home, Jerry and his sister Rachel heard footsteps behind them. When they turned back, they did not see anything. Jerry decided that if anyone was following them, then that follower was after his dog. After a few days, Jerry remembered that he hadn’t given his puppy a name! He asked his mother and his mother said Ginger because he is the color of ginger and has a gingery temperament. So they called him Ginger or Ginger Pye. Ginger was a smart dog. He even located the school that Jerry goes to. Almost all his neighbors and friends knew Ginger.
Ginger Pye went missing on Thanksgiving Day. Jerry and his sister Rachel searched for the puppy all around Cranbury but could not find him. They discover Ginger tied up in a shed, and uncover the identity of the thief: Wally Bullwinkle. The book closes with Ginger home safe to a happy family. – Wikipedia
Pinky Pye by Estes (this is a series)
“A captivating story, told with loving tenderness, whimsical humor, suspense, it has all the special magic that is Eleanor Estes’ trademark. . . . Don’t miss it.” —Chicago Tribune
Meet Pinky, a furious black kitten who adopts the Pye family.
The Pyes have some of the smartest pets around—there’s Ginger the intellectual dog, and Gracie the clever old cat—but Pinky is more than smart enough to earn a place in the Pye’s hearts. She can box with Ginger, play games with Mr. Pye, and—Rachel and Jerry can hardly believe their eyes—even type out her life story!
The Toothpaste Millionaire by Jean Merrill
Sixth-grader Rufus Mayflower doesn’t set out to become a millionaire. He just wants to save on toothpaste. Betting he can make a gallon of his own for the same price as one tube from the store, Rufus develops a step-by-step production plan with help from his good friend Kate MacKinstrey. By the time he reaches the eighth grade, Rufus makes more than a gallon — he makes a million! This fun, breezy story set in 1960s Cleveland, Ohio contains many real-life mathematical problems which the characters must solve to succeed in their budding business. Includes black-and-white illustrations by Jan Palmer. – Amazon
Onion John by Joseph Quincy Krumgold
The story of a friendship between a 12-year-old boy and an immigrant handyman, almost wrecked by the good intentions of the townspeople. – Amazon
Frindle by Andrew Clements
He really just likes to liven things up at school — and he’s always had plenty of great ideas. When Nick learns some interesting information about how words are created, suddenly he’s got the inspiration for his best plan ever…the frindle. Who says a pen has to be called a pen? Why not call it a frindle? Things begin innocently enough as Nick gets his friends to use the new word. Then other people in town start saying frindle. Soon the school is in an uproar, and Nick has become a local hero. His teacher wants Nick to put an end to all this nonsense, but the funny thing is frindle doesn’t belong to Nick anymore. The new word is spreading across the country, and there’s nothing Nick can do to stop it. – Amazon
Rascal by Sterling North
Nothing’s surprising in the North household, not even Sterling’s new pet raccoon. Rascal is only a baby when Sterling brings him home, but soon the two are best friends, doing everything together–until the spring day when everything suddenly changes.
Rascal is a heartwarming boyhood memoir that continues to find its way into the hearts of readers fifty years later. This special anniversary edition includes the book’s classic illustrations restored to their original splendor, as well as a letter from the author’s daughter, and material from the illustrator’s personal collection. – Amazon
Big Red by Jim Kjelgaard
From the moment Danny sees the beautiful Irish setter, he knows Red is the dog for him. Fast and smart, strong and noble, Red is the only dog Danny wants by his side. Soon, neither boy nor dog can stand to be apart. Together Danny and Red face many dangers in the harsh Wintapi wilderness that they call home. But the greatest test of their courage and friendship will come from an enemy more cunning than any they’ve known before—a bear who is the undisputed king of the wilderness, a savage killer called Old Majesty. – Amazon
Wild Trek by Jim Kjelgaard
A trapper and his dog travel into the Caribou Mountains to rescue a naturalist and a pilot whose plane has been downed in the rugged wilderness of northern Canada. – Amazon
Old Yeller by Fred Gipson
When a novel like Huckleberry Finn or The Yearling comes along, it defies customary adjectives because of the intensity of the response it evokes in the reader. Such a tale is Old Yeller; to listen to this eloquently simply story of a boy and his dog in the Texas hill country is an unforgivable and deeply moving experience. – Amazon
*please preview these books; there is some language and drug/alcohol use*
The True Blue Scouts of Sugar Man Swamp by Kathi Appelt
Meet Bingo and J’miah, raccoon brothers on a mission to save Sugar Man Swamp in this tale from Newbery Honoree Kathi Appelt.
Raccoon brothers Bingo and J’miah are the newest recruits of the Official Sugar Man Swamp Scouts. The opportunity to serve the Sugar Man – the massive creature who delights in delicious sugar cane and magnanimously rules over the swamp – is an honor, and also a big responsibility, since the rest of the swamp critters rely heavily on the intel of these hardworking Scouts.
12-year-old Chap Brayburn is not a member of any such organization. But he loves the swamp something fierce, and he’ll do anything to help protect it.
And help is surely needed, because world-class alligator wrestler Jaeger Stitch wants to turn Sugar Man swamp into an Alligator World Wrestling Arena and Theme Park, and the troubles don’t end there. There is also a gang of wild feral hogs on the march, headed straight toward them all. – Amazon
King of the Wind by Marguerite Henry
He was named “Sham” for the sun, this golden red stallion born in the Sultan of Morocco’s stone stables. Upon his heel was a small white spot, the symbol of speed. But on his chest was the symbol of misfortune. Although he was as swift as the desert winds, Sham’s proud pedigree would be scorned all his life by cruel masters and owners.
This is the classic story of Sham and his friend, the stable boy Agba. Their adventures take them from the sands of the Sahara to the royal courts of France and, finally, to the green pastures and stately homes of England. For Sham was the renowned “Godolphin Arabian” whose blood flows through the veins of almost every superior Thoroughbred. Sham’s speed – like his story – has become legendary. – Amazon
Brighty of the Grand Canyon by Marguerite Henry
Brighty, a shaggy young burro, lives wild and free in the Grand Canyon of Arizona. He roams the steep cliffs with the squirrels and rabbits. But his favorite friend is Old Timer, the prospector who shares hot biscuits and calls him Bright Angel. One day Old Timer doesn’t answer Brighty’s loud “Eeeee-aw!” Instead, the friendly animal encounters a ruthless claim jumper. Will Brighty be able to bring the killer to justice and make the wilderness safe again?
Marguerite Henry, author of the Newbery Award-winning classic Misty of Chincoteague, based this delightful story on the adventures of a real-life Grand Canyon burro. Brighty touched the hearts of all who knew him -even President Teddy Roosevelt. John McDonough’s animated performance brings out the burro’s joyous free spirit and courageous determination. – Amazon
The Highly Trained Dogs of Professor Petit by Carol Ryrie Brinks (this is a series)
There is so much work for a boy to do in the serious town of Puddling Center that eleven-year-old Willie can’t even go to school. So when Willie meets Professor Petit and his five “Highly Trained Dogs”—each with its own special talent—he’s delighted. Maybe their traveling show will shake things up! But then Petit’s rival, Hulk Hoskins, rolls into town with a circus tiger, and the professor and one of his dogs end up in big trouble. Now it’s up to Willie and his new canine friends to save the day and put on a show this town will never forget!
Back in print for the first time in decades, this 1953 novel by Newbery winner Carol Ryrie Brink will have kids rooting for cheerful Willie, honest Professor Petit, and the amazing Highly Trained Dogs.
Tikta-’Liktak by James Archibald Houston
“A young hunter is trapped on an ice floe and marooned on a barren island. . . . The Eskimo survives freezing weather, an attack by a polar bear, and the long journey that brings him safely home. . . . The author’s distinctive drawings help make this a memorable book.”–The New York Times Book Review
Lassie Come Home by Eric Knight
Filled with danger and adventure, this is the classic story of the love and loyalty shared by a boy and his dog. – Amazon
Black Stallion by Walter Farley (this is a series)
First published in 1941, Walter Farley’s best-selling novel for young readers is the triumphant tale of a boy and a wild horse. From Alec Ramsay and the Black’s first meeting on an ill-fated ship to their adventures on a desert island and their eventual rescue, this beloved story will hold the rapt attention of readers new and old. – Amazon
Gentle Ben by Walt Morey
The Alaskan wilderness is a lonely place for Mark Andersen, especially after the death of his brother. But Mark finds a friend named Ben, who happens to be an Alaskan brown bear. Ben and Mark form a special bond, but the townspeople are determined to destroy it. It is only through the strength of an enduring friendship that Ben—and Mark—have a chance of being saved. -Amazon
Gone Away Lake by Elizabeth Enright
Enjoy the adventures of eleven year-old Portia, who together with her younger brother, Foster, spend a summer with their cousin, Julian, engaged in more than the usual summer pastimes of sun, fun, and games. The three intrepid children soon discover a fascinating abandoned summer resort, consisting of deserted crumbling Victorian summer homes surrounding a vanished lake, which is now a swamp. But, best of all, they discover and befriend an elderly eccentric brother and sister who tell them the story of Gone-Away Lake.- Amazon
TinTin Graphic Novels
For the first time, you can own all 23 stories in The Adventures of Tintin series in this fantastic boxed set. This is the perfect present for Tintin fans of all ages. – Amazon
Journey to the Bottomless Pit by Elizabeth Mitchell
If you toured Mammoth Cave in Kentucky in the year 1838, you would have been led by candlelight through dark, winding tunnels to the edge of a terrifying bottomless pit. Your guide would have been seventeen-year-old Stephen Bishop, an African American slave who became known around the world for his knowledge of Mammoth Cave.
Bishop needed bravery, intelligence, and curiosity to explore the vast cavern. Using only a lantern, rope, and other basic caving equipment, he found a way to cross the bottomless pit and discover many more miles of incredible grottoes and tunnels. For the rest of his life he guided visitors through the cave, showing them how to stoop, bend, and crawl through passageways that were sometimes far from the traditional tour route.
Based on the narratives of those who toured the cave with him, Journey to the Bottomless Pit is the first book for young readers ever written about Stephen Bishop. – Amazon
Trailblazer Books by Dave Jackson (this is a series)
It is sometime during the 1880s, and Jack and Amy have come to London searching for their uncle. On their own without money, food, or shelter, they have nowhere else to turn. But what is the chance of finding him when they don’t even know where he lives?
For the two youngsters, attempting to live on the streets is frightening, dangerous, and an opportunity for the worst elements of the city to take advantage of them. London society has become uncaring, even cruel, to the needy. Where can they find safety?
When those strange Salvation Army people approach them on the street, should Jack and Amy run away? Can the General and Catherine Booth be trusted?
What hope do Jack and Amy have when ruthless men come after them?
An adventure story, ideal for readers 8-12 years of age. – Amazon
The Phantom Toll Booth by Norton Juster
With almost 4 million copies sold over 50 years after its original publication, generations of readers have now journeyed with Milo to the Lands Beyond in this beloved classic that Philip Pullman says “comes up bright and new every time I read it . . . it will continue to charm and delight for a very long time yet. And teach us some wisdom, too.” Enriched by Jules Feiffer’s splendid illustrations, the wit, wisdom, and wordplay of Norton Juster’s offbeat fantasy are as beguiling as ever.
For Milo, everything’s a bore. When a tollbooth mysteriously appears in his room, he drives through only because he’s got nothing better to do. But on the other side, things seem different. Milo visits the Island of Conclusions (you get there by jumping), learns about time from a ticking watchdog named Tock, and even embarks on a quest to rescue Rhyme and Reason. – Amazon
How to Train Your Dragon by Cressida Cowell (this is a series)
How to Train Your Dragon chronicles the adventures and misadventures of reluctant Viking hero Hiccup and his dragon, Toothless. Join them on all twelve of their exciting stories.
This beautiful box set showcases the series’ stunning new look and makes the perfect gift for any How to Train Your Dragon fan! – Amazon
Crenshaw by Katherine Applegate
Jackson and his family have fallen on hard times. There’s no more money for rent. And not much for food, either. His parents, his little sister, and their dog may have to live in their minivan. Again.
Crenshaw is a cat. He’s large, he’s outspoken, and he’s imaginary. He has come back into Jackson’s life to help him. But is an imaginary friend enough to save this family from losing everything?
Beloved author Katherine Applegate proves in unexpected ways that friends matter, whether real or imaginary. – Amazon
Mrs. Frisby and the Rats of Nimh by Robert C. O’Brien
This delightfully imaginative tale is always a popular favorite among children. Mrs. Frisby, a field mouse who lives in a garden, must move her family before the farmer begins plowing. Will the rats of NIMH – a group of highly intelligent laboratory rats – help her find a solution to her dilemma? – Amazon
Circus Mirandus by Cassie Beasley
Do you believe in magic?
Micah Tuttle does.
Even though his awful Great-Aunt Gertrudis doesn’t approve, Micah believes in the stories his dying Grandpa Ephraim tells him of the magical Circus Mirandus: the invisible tiger guarding the gates, the beautiful flying birdwoman, and the magician more powerful than any other—the Man Who Bends Light. Finally, Grandpa Ephraim offers proof. The Circus is real. And the Lightbender owes Ephraim a miracle. With his friend Jenny Mendoza in tow, Micah sets out to find the Circus and the man he believes will save his grandfather.
The only problem is, the Lightbender doesn’t want to keep his promise. And now it’s up to Micah to get the miracle he came for. – Amazon
The Story of the Treasure Seekers by E. Nesbit
From the author of The Railway Children and Five Children and It comes this tale of six siblings and their adventures in Victorian London. The Bastable children are deeply saddened by the death of their mother, and to make things worse, they’re impoverished when their father’s business fails. Determined to restore both the family’s fortune and its good name, the young Bastables embark on a variety of hilarious get-rich-quick schemes.
Each chapter details a new adventure, from digging for treasure and becoming detectives and highway robbers, to writing a newspaper and selling wine. The children accost a nobleman on Blackheath and are mistaken for blackmailers, pay a visit to a moneylender, encounter a royal princess in Greenwich Park, and earnestly pursue other comic ventures. Their courage and determination provide a heartwarming complement to the droll narrative, and their hopes, disappointments, and triumphs remain as real and moving today as they were a century ago. – Amazon
The Magic City by E. Nesbit
After Philip’s older sister and sole family member Helen marries, he goes off to live with his new step sister Lucy. He has trouble adjusting at first, thrown into a world different from his previous life and abandoned by his sister while she is on her honeymoon. To entertain himself he builds a giant model city from things around the house: game pieces, books, blocks, bowls, etc. Then through some magic he finds himself inside the city, and it is alive with the people he has populated it with.
Edith Nesbit (1858-1924) was the author of world famous books for children – the tales of fantastical adventures, journeys back in time and travel to magical worlds. – Amazon
The book of Dragons by E. Nesbit
According to her biographer Julia Briggs, Nesbit was “the first modern writer for children”: “(Nesbit) helped to reverse the great tradition of children’s literature inaugurated by Lewis Carroll, George MacDonald and Kenneth Grahame, in turning away from their secondary worlds to the tough truths to be won from encounters with things-as-they-are, previously the province of adult novels.” Briggs also credits Nesbit with having invented the children’s adventure story. Noël Coward was a great admirer of hers and, in a letter to an early biographer Noel Streatfeild, wrote “she had an economy of phrase, and an unparalleled talent for evoking hot summer days in the English countryside.” – Amazon
TAL, His Marvelous Adventures with Noom-Zor-Noom by Paul Fenimore Cooper
The story of Tal, a little orphan boy, and the adventures that befell him on the amazing journey to the land of Troom. His companions were the wise old man Noom-Zor-Noom and the talking donkey Millitinkle. – Amazon
A Wonder Book for Boys and Girls by Nathaniel Hawthorne
The author has long been of opinion that many of the classical myths were capable of being rendered into very capital reading for children. In the little volume here offered to the public, he has worked up half a dozen of them, with this end in view. A great freedom of treatment was necessary to his plan; but it will be observed by every one who attempts to render these legends malleable in his intellectual furnace, that they are marvellously independent of all temporary modes and circumstances. They remain essentially the same, after changes that would affect the identity of almost anything else.
He does not, therefore, plead guilty to a sacrilege, in having sometimes shaped anew, as his fancy dictated, the forms that have been hallowed by an antiquity of two or three thousand years. No epoch of time can claim a copyright in these immortal fables. They seem never to have been made; and certainly, so long as man exists, they can never perish; but, by their indestructibility itself, they are legitimate subjects for every age to clothe with its own garniture of manners and sentiment, and to imbue with its own morality. In the present version they may have lost much of their classical aspect (or, at all events, the author has not been careful to preserve it), and have perhaps assumed a Gothic or romantic guise.
In performing this pleasant task,—for it has been really a task fit for hot weather, and one of the most agreeable, of a literary kind, which he ever undertook,—the author has not always thought it necessary to write downward, in order to meet the comprehension of children. He has generally suffered the theme to soar, whenever such was its tendency, and when he himself was buoyant enough to follow without an effort. Children possess an unestimated sensibility to whatever is deep or high, in imagination or feeling, so long as it is simple likewise. It is only the artificial and the complex that bewilder them. – Amazon
The Children’s Homer by Padraic Colum
Travel back to a mythical time when Achilles, aided by the gods, waged war against the Trojans. And join Odysseus on his journey through murky waters, facing obstacles like the terrifying Scylla and whirring Charybdis, the beautiful enchantress Circe, and the land of the raging Cyclôpes. Using narrative threads from The Iliad and The Odyssey, Padraic Colum weaves a stunning adventure with all the drama and power that Homer intended. – Amazon
Favorite Sherlock Holmes Detective Stories by Arthur Conan Doyle
Throughout the annals of literature there is one detective who reigns supreme — Mr. Sherlock Holmes of 221B Baker Street, London. From that celebrated address, Holmes and his friend Dr. Watson set out to solve the most difficult cases and bring to justice the master criminals of Victorian England.
Now readers can enjoy the crime-solving exploits of the storied duo in this selection of favorite adventures. “The Adventure of the Dancing Men” concerns the appearance of mysterious stick-figure drawings, which prove disastrous to a country squire and his bride; “The Red-Headed League” pits Holmes against a clever bank robber, while “A Scandal in Bohemia” finds the detective locked in cerebral combat with Irene Adler, the only female who ever outwitted him (and the only one to steal his heart). In “The Final Problem” Holmes confronts the evil Professor Moriarty, “the Napoleon of Crime,” atop the Reichenbach Falls. Also included here are four other classic tales: “Silver Blaze,” “The Adventure of the Speckled Band,” “The Engineer’s Thumb,” and “The Crooked Man.”
A great way to introduce younger readers to the world’s best-known fictional detective, this affordable collection will entertain mystery lovers of all ages. – Amazon
The Mad Scientists’ Club by Bertrand R. Brinley (this is a series)
The six members of the Mad Scientists’ Club experiment with new projects which include investigating a strange sea monster and the theft of a valuable dinosaur egg. – Amazon
Unusual Chickens for the Exceptional Poultry Farmer by Kelly Jones
Twelve-year-old Sophie Brown feels like a fish out of water when she and her parents move from Los Angeles to the farm they’ve inherited from a great-uncle. But farm life gets more interesting when a cranky chicken appears and Sophie discovers the hen can move objects with the power of her little chicken brain: jam jars, the latch to her henhouse, the entire henhouse….
And then more of her great-uncle’s unusual chickens come home to roost. Determined, resourceful Sophie learns to care for her flock, earning money for chicken feed, collecting eggs. But when a respected local farmer tries to steal them, Sophie must find a way to keep them (and their superpowers) safe.
Told in letters to Sophie’s abuela, quizzes, a chicken-care correspondence course, to-do -Amazon
Henry Reed, Inc. by Keith Robertson (this is a series)
Henry Reed has arrived in Grover’s Corner–and the town will never be the same. While spending the summer with his aunt and uncle, Henry comes up with a sure-fire money-making project: Henry Reed, Inc., Research. Henry’s neighbor, Midge Glass, has an even more sure-fire hit: Reed and Glass, Inc. Now with Henry’s ingenious mind and Midge’s practical reasoning, Reed and Class Inc. turns into a huge success–while creating more bewildering and outrageous schemes than the townfold could have imagined. – Amazon
From the Mixed Up Files of Mrs. Basil E. Frankweiler by E. L. Konigsburg
When suburban Claudia Kincaid decides to run away, she knows she doesn’t just want to run from somewhere; she wants to run tosomewhere – to a place that is comfortable, beautiful, and preferably elegant. She chooses the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York City. Knowing that her younger brother, Jamie, has money and thus can help her with the serious cash flow problem, she invites him along.
Once settled into the museum, Claudia and Jamie find themselves caught up in the mystery of an angel statue that the museum purchased at an auction for a bargain price of $250. The statue is possibly an early work of the Renaissance master Michelangelo, and therefore worth millions. Or is it? Claudia is determined to find out.
This quest leads Claudia to Mrs. Basil E. Frankweiler, the remarkable old woman who sold the statue, and to some equally remarkable discoveries about herself. – Amazon
The Invention of Hugo Cabret by Brian Selznick
Orphan, clock keeper, and thief, Hugo lives in the walls of a busy Paris train station, where his survival depends on secrets and anonymity. But when his world suddenly interlocks with an eccentric, bookish girl and a bitter old man who runs a toy booth in the station, Hugo’s undercover life and his most precious secret are put in jeopardy. A cryptic drawing, a treasured notebook, a stolen key, a mechanical man, and a hidden message from Hugo’s dead father form the backbone of this intricate, tender, and spellbinding mystery. – Amazon
Wonderstruck by Brian Selznick
Ben and Rose secretly wish their lives were different. Ben longs for the father he has never known. Rose dreams of a mysterious actress whose life she chronicles in a scrapbook. When Ben discovers a puzzling clue in his mother’s room and Rose reads an enticing headline in the newspaper, both children set out alone on desperate quests to find what they are missing.
Set fifty years apart, these two independent stories–Ben’s told in words, Rose’s in pictures–weave back and forth with mesmerizing symmetry. How they unfold and ultimately intertwine will surprise you, challenge you, and leave you breathless with wonder. Rich, complex, affecting, and beautiful–with over 460 pages of original artwork–Wonderstruckis a stunning achievement from a gifted artist and visionary. – Amazon
Nooks and Crannies by Jessica Lawson
Sweet, shy Tabitha Crum, the neglected only child of two parents straight out of a Roald Dahl book, doesn’t have a friend in the world – except for her pet mouse, Pemberley, whom she loves dearly. But on the day she receives one of six invitations to the country estate of wealthy Countess Camilla DeMoss, her life changes forever. Upon the children’s arrival at the sprawling, possibly haunted mansion, it turns out the countess has a very big secret – one that will change their lives forever. Then the children begin disappearing one by one. So Tabitha takes a cue from her favorite detective novels and, with Pemberley by her side, attempts to solve the case and rescue the other children…who just might be her first real friends. – Amazon
The Stories Mother Nature Told Her Children by Jane Andrews
This book was converted from its physical edition to the digital format by a community of volunteers. You may find it for free on the web. Purchase of the Kindle edition includes wireless delivery. – Amazon
Secrets of the Woods by William J. Long
This book was converted from its physical edition to the digital format by a community of volunteers. You may find it for free on the web. Purchase of the Kindle edition includes wireless delivery. – Amazon
A Little Brother to the Bear by William J. Long
Mooweesuk the Coon is called the bear’s little brother by both Indians and naturalists, because of the many ways in which he resembles the “big prowler in the black coat.” An absorbing chapter on the coon’s secret habits begins this volume, followed by stories about the woodcock, the wildcat, the toad, and many other animals. Two chapters remarkable for their keen insight into the hidden life of animals close this volume,─one on Animal Surgery, describing some of the ways in which wild animals treat their wounds; the other on Hunting without a Gun, showing the joy of following even the large and dangerous animals with the desire only to be near and understand them.- Amazon
Which word is a noun?
Identify nouns – with abstract nouns
Identify common and proper nouns
Form regular plurals with -s, -es and -ies
Use regular plurals with -s, -es and -ies
Form regular plurals with -s, -es, -ies and -ves
Use regular plurals with -s, -es, -ies and -ves
Is the noun singular or plural?
Form and use irregular plurals
Identify plurals, singular possessives and plural possessives
Form the singular or plural possessive
Identify and correct errors with plural and possessive nouns
Identify personal pronouns
Choose between subject and object personal pronouns
Replace the noun with a personal pronoun
Compound subjects and objects with “I” and “me”
Identify possessive pronouns
Use possessive pronouns
Choose between personal and reflexive pronouns
Use reflexive pronouns
Identify relative pronouns
Use relative pronouns: who and whom
Use relative pronouns: who, whom, whose, which and that
Use action verbs
Identify action verbs
Identify main verbs and helping verbs
What does the modal verb show?
Use the correct modal verb
Is the subject singular or plural?
Use the correct subject or verb
Use the correct subject or verb – with compound subjects
Which sentence is in the regular past tense?
Identify verbs in the regular past tense
Form and use the regular past tense
Identify the irregular past tense
Form and use the irregular past tense: set 1
Form and use the irregular past tense: set 2
Form and use the irregular past tense: set 3
Form and use the irregular past tense: set 4
To be: use the correct form
To have: use the correct form
Is the sentence in the past, present or future tense?
Change the sentence to future tense
Use the progressive verb tenses
Form the progressive verb tenses
Choose between the past tense and past participle
Use the perfect verb tenses
Form the perfect verb tenses
Use the correct article: a or an
Use the correct article: a, an or the
Adjectives and adverbs
Does the adjective tell you what kind or how many?
Identify the adjective that describes the noun
Does the adverb tell you how, when or where?
Use relative adverbs
Choose between adjectives and adverbs
Is the word an adjective or adverb?
Use adjectives to compare
Spell adjectives that compare
Use adjectives with more and most
Use adverbs to compare
Identify prepositions and their objects
Identify prepositional phrases
Use coordinating conjunctions
Identify coordinating conjunctions
Use subordinating conjunctions
Identify subordinating conjunctions
Contractions with “not”
Punctuation, capitalization and formatting
Commas with dates
Commas with direct addresses and after introductory words
Capitalizing the names of people and pets and titles of respect
Capitalizing days, months and holidays
Capitalizing the names of places and geographic features
Capitalizing the names of historical events, periods and documents
Capitalizing proper adjectives, nationalities and languages
Greetings and closings of letters
Formatting and capitalizing titles
Prefixes and suffixes
Identify base words, prefixes and suffixes
Determine the meaning of a word with pre-, re- or mis-
Use the prefixes pre-, re- and mis-
Determine the meaning of a word with -ful or -less
Determine the meaning of a word with -ly or -ness
Determine the meaning of a word with -able or -ment
Determine the meaning of a word with a suffix: review
Prefixes and suffixes: review
Greek and Latin roots
Use Greek and Latin roots as clues to the meanings of words
Use the meanings of words as clues to the meanings of Greek and Latin roots
Determine the meanings of Greek and Latin roots
Determine the meanings of words with Greek and Latin roots
Word relationships and usage
Choose the synonym
Which sentence has the same meaning?
Find synonyms in context
Choose the antonym
Which sentence uses an antonym?
Find antonyms in context
Form compound words
Form and use compound words
Describe the difference between related words
Positive and negative connotation
Homophones with pictures
Use the correct homophone
Which definition matches the sentence?
Which sentence matches the definition?
Determine the meaning of idioms from context: set 1
Identify the meaning of idioms and adages: set 1
Determine the meaning of idioms from context: set 2
Identify the meaning of idioms and adages: set 2
Identify similes and metaphors
Determine the meanings of similes and metaphors
Here is the 4th grade math topics and subtopics as well as a printable.
Convert between place values
Words names for numbers
Prime and composite numbers
Even or odd: arithmetic rules
Inequalities with number lines
Put numbers up to four digits in order
Compare numbers up to five digits
Add numbers up to five digits
Add numbers up to five digits: word problems
Addition: fill in the missing digits
Properties of addition
Add three or more numbers up to five digits each
Addition patterns over increasing place values
Choose numbers with a particular sum
Estimate sums: word problems
Subtract numbers up to five digits
Subtract numbers up to five digits: word problems
Subtraction: fill in the missing digits
Subtraction patterns over increasing place values
Choose numbers with a particular difference
Estimate differences: word problems
Multiplication facts to 10
Compare numbers using multiplication
Choose the multiples of a given number up to 12
Multiply 1-digit numbers by 2-digit numbers
Multiply 1-digit numbers by 2-digit numbers: word problems
Multiply 1-digit numbers by 3-digit numbers
Multiply 1-digit numbers by larger numbers
Multiplication patterns over increasing place values
Properties of multiplication
Estimate products – multiply by 1-digit numbers
Estimate products – multiply by larger numbers
Estimate products: word problems
Choose numbers with a particular product
Multiply numbers ending in zeroes
Multiply numbers ending in zeroes: word problems
Multiply three numbers
Multiply three or more numbers: word problems
Inequalities with multiplication
Division facts to 10
Division facts to 10: word problems
Properties of division
Divide larger numbers
Divide larger numbers: word problems
Complete the division table
Choose numbers with a particular quotient
Divide numbers ending in zeroes
Estimate quotients: word problems
Divisibility rules: word problems
Division patterns over increasing place values
Inequalities with division
Add, subtract, multiply and divide
Addition, subtraction, multiplication and division word problems Estimate sums, differences, products and quotients: word problems
Multi-step word problems
Word problems with extra or missing information
Solve word problems using guess-and-check
Choose numbers with a particular sum, difference, product or quotient
Mentally add and subtract numbers ending in zeroes
Inequalities involving addition, subtraction, multiplication and division
Write variable expressions
Write variable expressions: word problems
Evaluate variable expressions
Write variable equations to represent word problems
Solve variable equations
Input/output tables with addition, subtraction, multiplication and division
Complete a table for a two-variable relationship
Write a two-variable equation
Graph a two-variable relationship
Find two numbers based on sum and difference
Find two numbers based on sum, difference, product and quotient
Find the order
Patterns and sequences
Find the next shape in a repeating pattern
Complete a repeating pattern
Make a repeating pattern
Find the next row in a growing pattern of shapes
Complete an increasing number pattern
Complete a geometric number pattern
Number patterns: word problems
Number patterns: mixed review
Objects on a coordinate plane
Graph points on a coordinate plane
Follow directions on a coordinate plane
Coordinate planes as maps
Data and graphs
Read a table
Interpret line graphs
Create line graphs
Interpret bar graphs
Create bar graphs
Interpret line plots
Create line plots
Interpret stem-and-leaf plots
Create stem-and-leaf plots
Choose the best type of graph
Compare money amounts
Round money amounts
Add and subtract money amounts
Units of measurement
Choose the appropriate metric unit of measure
Compare and convert metric units of length
Compare and convert metric units of mass
Compare and convert metric units of volume
Match clocks and times
Match analogue and digital clocks
Read clocks and write times
Convert time units
Add and subtract mixed time units
Fractions of time units
Find start and end times: multi-step word problems
Convert between 12-hour and 24-hour time
Time zones – 12-hour time
Time zones – 24-hour time
Transportation schedules – 12-hour time
Transportation schedules – 24-hour time
Which two-dimensional figure is being described?
Identify three-dimensional figures
Count vertices, edges and faces
Identify faces of three-dimensional figures
Which three-dimensional figure is being described?
Nets of three-dimensional figures
Is it a polygon?
Number of sides in polygons
Lines, line segments and rays
Parallel, perpendicular and intersecting lines
Acute, right, obtuse and straight angles
Types of triangles
Parallel sides in quadrilaterals
Identify congruent figures
Identify lines of symmetry
Perimeter: find the missing side lengths
Find the area of figures made of unit squares
Select figures with a given area
Select two figures with the same area
Create figures with a given area
Find the area or missing side length of a rectangle
Area and perimeter: word problems
Understand fractions: fraction bars
Understand fractions: area models
Match fractions to models
Show fractions: fraction bars
Show fractions: area models
Unit fractions: modelling word problems
Unit fractions: word problems
Fractions of a whole: modelling word problems
Fractions of a whole: word problems
Fractions of a group: word problems
Find equivalent fractions using area models
Graph equivalent fractions on number lines
Fractions with denominators of 10, 100 and 1000
Patterns of equivalent fractions
Write fractions in lowest terms
Compare and order fractions
Compare fractions with like numerators or denominators using models
Compare fractions with like numerators or denominators
Compare fractions using models
Graph and compare fractions on number lines
Compare fractions using benchmarks
Compare fractions in recipes
Order fractions with like numerators or denominators
Find smaller or larger fractions
What decimal number is illustrated?
Model decimals and fractions Understanding decimals expressed in words
Place values in decimal numbers
Graph decimals on number lines
Decimal number lines
Graph fractions as decimals on number lines
Convert fractions to decimals
Convert decimals to fractions
Convert decimals between standard and expanded form using fractions
Compare decimals on number lines
Compare decimal numbers
Put decimal numbers in order I
Compare decimals and fractions on number lines
Compare decimals and fractions
Put decimal numbers in order II
Number sequences involving decimals
Add and subtract decimals
Add decimal numbers
Subtract decimal numbers
Add and subtract decimals: word problems
Choose decimals with a particular sum or difference Add three or more decimals
Add three or more decimals: word problems Complete the addition or subtraction sentence Inequalities with addition and subtraction
Estimate sums and differences of decimals
Solve decimal problems using diagrams
Probability and statistics
Find the probability
Mean and mode
Interpret charts to find mean and mode
History and Geography
Here is the fourth grade basic social studies topics and subtopics. This is just an idea of what should be covered but there is a lot to choose from. Ive added a printable as well if you choose to make your own curriculum.
English colonies in North America
Jamestown: the early years
Jamestown: growth of a colony
New England colonies: religion and government
New England colonies: economy and conflict
Middle colonies: founding and government Middle colonies: economy and society
Southern colonies: founding and government
Southern colonies: economy and slavery
Identify the Thirteen Colonies
Select the Thirteen Colonies
Name the Thirteen Colonies
The American Revolution
The American Revolution: the Thirteen Colonies under British rule
The American Revolution: New British taxes
The American Revolution: the Boston Tea Party
The American Revolution: the rebellion begins
The American Revolution: preparing for war
The American Revolution: struggle for independence
The American Revolution: turning the tide of the war
The American Revolution: conclusion and aftermath
Early 19th century American history
The Louisiana Purchase
The Lewis and Clark Expedition
The War of 1812: causes
The War of 1812: events and effects
Antebellum Period: economies of the North and South
Antebellum Period: abolitionist and proslavery perspectives
Antebellum Period: slavery and politics
The Civil War and Reconstruction
The Civil War: the beginning of the war
The Civil War: the First Battle of Bull Run to Gettysburg
The Civil War: war tactics and the home front
The Civil War: the end of the war
20th century American history
World War I: the road to war
World War I: the war begins
World War I: events of the war
World War I: the road to peace
The Great Depression
The New Deal
World War II: lead-up to war in Europe, Asia
World War II: global events
Read a map: cardinal directions
Identify lines of latitude and longitude
Use lines of latitude and longitude
Oceans and continents
Identify oceans and continents
Select oceans and continents
Name oceans and continents
Identify states of the West
Select states of the West
Name states of the West
Identify states of the Midwest
Select states of the Midwest
Name states of the Midwest
Identify states of the Southeast
Select states of the Southeast
Name states of the Southeast
Identify states of the Northeast
Select states of the Northeast
Name states of the Northeast
Identify the 50 states
Select the 50 states Name the 50 states
Identify state capitals of the West
Name state capitals of the West
Identify state capitals of the Midwest
Name state capitals of the Midwest
Identify state capitals of the Southeast
Name state capitals of the Southeast
Identify state capitals of the Northeast
Name state capitals of the Northeast
Identify the 50 state capitals
Name the 50 state capitals
Cities of the West
Cities of the Midwest
Cities of the Southeast
Cities of the Northeast
Major U.S. cities
The Bill of Rights
Checks and balances
American symbols, landmarks, and monuments
Identify American symbols
Identify American landmarks and monuments
The American flag
The White House
The Washington Monument
The Lincoln Memorial
The Statue of Liberty
The Empire State Building
The Golden Gate Bridge
American national holidays
Basic economic principles
What is economics?
Costs and benefits Opportunity cost
Banking and finance
Supply and demand
Understand quantity supplied and quantity demanded
Understand overall supply and demand
Create and use supply and demand curves
Identify shortage and surplus
Identify shortage and surplus with graphs
Identify shortage and surplus with data
Social studies skills
Identify facts and opinions
Reading and creating timelines with BCE and CE
Here is the Science Topics and sub topics for fourth grade with a printable. This list is suggestive and works on expanding knowledge from previous grades and the printable should you decide to create your own curriculum.
Compare properties of objects Compare properties of materials
Matter and mass
Understand conservation of matter using graphs
States of matter
Identify and sort solids, liquids, and gases
Change-of-state diagrams: solid, liquid, and gas
Heating, cooling, and changes of state
Heat and thermal energy
Predict heat flow
Predict temperature changes
How is temperature related to thermal energy?
Physical and chemical change
Identify physical and chemical changes Compare physical and chemical changes
Force and motion
Identify directions of forces
How do balanced and unbalanced forces affect motion?
How does mass affect force and acceleration?
Introduction to static electricity and charged objects
Identify magnets that attract or repel
Label magnets that attract or repel
Compare strengths of magnetic forces
Identify living and nonliving things
Identify mammals, birds, fish, reptiles, and amphibians
Identify vertebrates and invertebrates
Use evidence to classify mammals, birds, fish, reptiles, and amphibians
Use evidence to classify animals
Describe, classify, and compare kingdoms
Identify common and scientific names
Origins of scientific names
Use scientific names to classify organisms
Read and construct animal life cycle diagrams
Compare animal life cycles
Human organs and their functions
Body systems: circulation and respiration
Body systems: digestion
Body systems: removing waste
Body systems: perception and motion
Classify fruits and vegetables as plant parts
Identify plant parts and their functions
How do plants make food?
Identify flower parts and their functions
Describe and construct flowering plant life cycles
Describe and construct conifer life cycles
Introduction to adaptations
Animal adaptations: beaks, mouths, and necks Animal adaptations: feet and limbs
Animal adaptations: skins and body coverings
Traits and heredity
What affects traits?
Use observations to support a hypothesis
Match offspring to parents using inherited traits
Identify inherited and acquired traits
Inherited and acquired traits: use evidence to support a statement
Read a plant pedigree chart
Read an animal pedigree chart
Identify functions of plant cell parts
Identify functions of animal cell parts
Plant cell diagrams: identify parts
Animal cell diagrams: identify parts
Plant cell diagrams: label parts
Animal cell diagrams: label parts
Compare plant and animal cells
Cell part functions: true or false
Identify roles in food chains
How does matter move in food chains? Interpret food webs
Evaluate natural energy sources
Rocks and minerals
Identify minerals using properties
Identify rocks using properties
How do sedimentary rocks form?
Classify rocks as igneous, sedimentary, or metamorphic How do rock layers form?
Introduction to fossils
Identify and classify fossils
Compare fossils to modern organisms
Compare ancient and modern organisms
use observations to support a hypothesis Interpret evidence from fossils in rock layers
Weather and climate
Read a thermometer
Compare temperatures on thermometers
Collect and graph temperature data
What’s the difference between weather and climate?
Weather and climate around the world
Weather or climate? Cite text
Use climate data to make predictions
Use data to describe climates
Describe and graph water on Earth Read a topographic map
Select parts of a topographic map
Evaluate multiple design solutions to prevent flooding
Identify the best design solution to prevent hurricane damage
Units and measurement
Choose customary units of distance
Choose metric units of distance
Choose customary units of mass
Choose metric units of mass
Choose customary units of volume
Choose metric units of volume
Abbreviate time and length units
Abbreviate mass and volume units
Identify phases of the Moon
Can weave, create coil pots and build papier mâché forms.
Loves to draw realistic things like animals and buildings.
Uses shading to transform a two-dimensional object into a three-dimensional form.